富了之后、袭人回家与《西厢记》

作者:敖幼凝人气:2576更新:2021-07-19 06:01:08

前几年 ,流传着一个关于富了之后的笑话。说是等像某某富翁一样有钱时 ,早上到牛肉面馆吃牛肉面,一次就买上它两大碗,吃一碗倒掉一碗 。这种用自己目前心态表达富了之后的段子听听确实也觉得有意思 。贾平凹在一篇文章中也有过类似的一个情节 ,说刚打倒四人帮那阵,村村镇镇都开展批判四人帮的大会。一个农民在会上揭发江青的反动罪行,说是她睡觉的床头有一口缸 ,里面装满了红糖;床脚也有一口缸,里面装满了白糖。这江青早上一睁眼,就吃一口红糖 ,紧接着再吃一口白糖 。这就充分表现了她奢靡的资本主义生活方式。当然,类似这样的记载在古人笔记中也有好些,我影响深刻的是说一个文人 ,在严嵩被查抄后,买了他家厨房做工的一个佣人,问佣人会做啥 ,佣人告诉他会做包子。他就请了一帮朋友 ,想让他们来品尝一下严大相国家的特色包子 。结果,等了好长时间也没有包子端出来。派人去问,只见那佣人很悠闲地坐在厨房 ,除了案板上有一点点葱芯外,别的什么都没有。他奇怪地问包子在哪里 。那佣人说,她在严相国家做包子时就只是负责准备葱 ,现在葱准备好了,可这么点怕是不够。看到一大捆葱只剩下了不到四两,每棵葱最多就剩下最里面的一小段。文人不相信 ,问严相国家做包子要几个人,那人说要三十多人,摘葱的摘葱 ,和面的和面,剁肉的剁肉,拌馅的拌馅要卖弄的文人当时才傻了 。仅仅做个包子就需要三十多人 ,相国家的生活真的不是他那样的人家能够想到的。

这些记载初看起来像是笑话 ,细细想却说出了人生中的一个大道理。我们都是在用自己的生活阅历来理解这个社会,所以才会有自己喜欢读书就觉得世界上所有的人都应该喜欢读书一样的想法,也有了李商隐根据庄子故事改写的:不知腐鼠成滋味 ,猜意鹓雏竟未休这样的诗句 。文学艺术当然也不例外,无论哪种形式,表达的其实都是作者对人世的看法 。在才子佳人小说流行的明清时代 ,曹雪芹借助于贾母的嘴道出了这类小说(戏曲)的软肋:何尝他知道那世宦读书家的道理?别说他那书上那些世宦书礼大家,如今眼下真的,拿我们这中等人家说起 ,也没有这样的,别说是那些大家子。可知是诌掉了下巴的话。也就是说要是作者本人根本就不是世家子弟,他也就由于没有那种生活经历而不知道世家子弟们是怎么生活的 ,可他却偏要按自己认为的方式去写这样人家的生活,结果写出来的故事就非常离奇 。也似乎是为了告诉我们中等人家以上的家庭妇女是如何出门的,《红楼梦》中第二十九回写了贾母等到清虚观打醮的情节:提前有人去设置屏障 ,刚到了时有家人维持 ,其中还出现了一个吓晕了的小道士到处乱闯引起的骚乱。文中说:贾母的轿刚至山门以内,贾母在轿内因看见有守门大帅并千里眼、顺风耳 、当方土地 、本境城隍各位泥胎圣像,便命住轿。贾珍带领各子弟上来迎接 。凤姐儿知道鸳鸯等在后面 ,赶不上来搀贾母,自己下了轿,忙要上来搀。可巧有个十二三岁的小道士儿 ,拿着剪筒,照管剪各处蜡花,正欲得便且藏出去 ,不想一头撞在凤姐儿怀里。凤姐便一扬手,照脸一下,把那小孩子打了一个筋斗 ,骂道:野牛日的,胡朝那里跑!那小道士也不顾拾烛剪,爬起来往外还要跑 。正值宝钗等下车 ,众婆娘媳妇正围随的风雨不透 ,但见一个小道士滚了出来,都喝声叫:拿,拿 ,拿!打,打,打!贾母听了忙问:是怎么了?贾珍忙出来问。凤姐上去搀住贾母 ,就回说:一个小道士儿,剪灯花的,没躲出去 ,这会子混钻呢。贾母听说忙道:快带了那孩子来,别唬着他 。小门小户的孩子,都是娇生惯养的 ,那里见的这个势派。倘或唬着他,倒怪可怜见的,他老子娘岂不疼的慌?说着 ,便叫贾珍去好生带了来。贾珍只得去拉了那孩子来 。那孩子还一手拿着蜡剪 ,跪在地下乱战 。这是他们这样的人家当时出门的规矩。当然,按照阶级论说是封建地主阶级们为了摆谱,是一种很表面、很浮浅、很不值得提倡的东西。可要是按照历史唯物主义的观点 ,这就是在当时那个历史阶段那个社会阶层该有的规矩,你要不那么做反倒显得有什么见不得人的勾当 。

同样,《红楼梦》中写了袭人的两次回家 ,两次由于身份不同的回家从而受到的不同待遇。

第一次回家只是他哥哥来接了回去,原因当然是当时她的身份只是丫头,尽管是一个月薪二两的大丫头 ,她也只能到合适的年龄被拉出去配人,所以当时的她也就只能自己一个人回去了。

可在她第二次回去时(这次她回去是由于她母亲病重,她哥哥来请求能让她回去见上一面) ,她的身份已经被王夫人暗中确定成贾宝玉的屋内人了,也就是说,在管理家务的王熙凤那里 ,她已经由一个大丫头变成了有名分的人 。因此 ,在王夫人确定袭人应该回去,让王熙凤酌量去办理后,凤姐儿答应了 ,回至房中,便命周瑞家的去告诉袭人原故。又吩咐周瑞家的:再将跟着出门的媳妇传一个,你两个人 ,再带两个小丫头子跟了袭人去。外头派四个有年纪跟车的 。要一辆大车,你们带着坐,要一辆小车 ,给丫头们坐。周瑞家的答应了,才要去,凤姐儿又道:那袭人是个省事的。你告诉他说我的话:叫他穿几件颜色好衣服 ,大大的包一包袱衣裳拿着,包袱也要好好的,手炉也要拿好的 。临走时 ,叫他先来我瞧瞧。袭人穿戴来了后 ,关于当时的穿着一番议论之后,只见凤姐儿命平儿将昨日那件石青刻丝八团天马皮褂子拿出来,与了袭人。又看包袱 ,只得一个弹墨花绫水红绸里的夹包袱,里面只包着两件半旧棉袄与皮褂 。凤姐儿又命平儿把一个玉色绸里的哆罗呢的包袱拿出来,又命包上一件雪褂子 。在袭人离开前 ,王熙凤又嘱咐袭人道:你妈若好了就罢;若不中用了,只管住下,打发人来回我 ,我再另打发人给你送铺盖去。可别使人家的铺盖和梳头的家伙。又吩咐周瑞家的道:你们自然也知道这里的规矩的,也不用我嘱咐了 。周瑞家的答应:都知道.我们这去到那里,总叫他们的人回避。若住下 ,必是另要一两间内房的。

这前后两次由于身份不同而回家的情形,也在悄悄地回应着贾母的话 。而这种世族大家的规矩,要是没有经历过 ,就算是水平再高的作家也不可能写出来(所以《红楼梦》八十回后总觉得不像就是这个原因 ,只见过狗却要去画老虎,样子是老虎,但骨子里仍不过是狗)。

鲁迅先生曾说过:穷人体会不到富人钱多的烦恼 ,拼命想资本增值,又害怕蚀本。煤油大王生活在社会的顶端,哪里知道社会底层的孤老太婆为了赚钱 ,冒着风寒拾取路边遗落的煤渣 。确实,穷人体会不到富人的苦恼,生在富贵之家的人当然也不可能知道穷人的日子。一直被文人们笑话的晋惠帝 ,一次听大臣说由于年荒,一些地方已经有人饿死了。他奇怪地问:他们怎么不吃肉糜呢?这个故事一直是他愚蠢的象征,因为所有听到这个故事而发出嘲笑的都是有过现实饥饿经历的人 。那些生下来就为吃什么才觉得合口发愁的人听了这个故事后会觉得可笑吗?他们肯定不觉得晋惠帝可笑。因为他们根本就不知道饿死的原因不是由于不想吃 ,而是由于没办法得到东西吃。

从这个角度来说,所有的理解都是建立在经历的基础上 。好多作家没经历却要写自己的故事,当然就剩下了虚构(按自己的想法去构建别人的生活) 。像我们现在被称为古代四大名剧之一的《西厢记》 ,要是仅仅从故事情节上来看 ,当然也是被批评的对象。就算是前朝的丞相,尽管他去世了,只要他没有被秋后算账 、抄家发配 ,那要护送丞相灵柩回家,却只有老妇人郑氏、小姐莺莺和侍女小红以及一个小厮,这个就是典型的乡村小地主的想法。可要说成是丞相这样比贾府更有权势的人家 ,就这么几个人,那就是根本不可能出现的事了 。所以王实甫设置的故事人物本身就不符合实际,在现实中绝对不可能有那样的人。但这并不能说王实甫本人不知道这种规矩 ,而应该是他知道他在写一部戏剧。而这部戏剧的观众是平民百姓,他们之所以看戏就由于它演的故事在日常生活中是没有的 。所以一个过世丞相的闺女本身就能引起平头百姓的兴趣来,更何况她还和一个白面书生发生了一段皆大欢喜的故事呢。但曹雪芹通过贾宝玉的行动表明他喜欢这本杂剧 ,而他喜欢这本杂剧的原因肯定也不会是这个故事,而是这个故事中表达人物心情及景物的词曲。看看书中的描写,贾宝玉在看到杂剧后就茶饭不思地读了起来 ,林黛玉也是第一时间进入了忘我的境界 。而之所以这样 ,用林黛玉的话说是它曲词警人,余香满口。也就是说尽管它的故事情节缺乏真实性,可它描写当时的客观景物、刻画人物在那种状态下的心情却是非常真实的 ,而这也应该是文学艺术能够存在的基础。打个比方说吧,人们戴的手表有的价值几百万,有的或许就几块钱 ,两者从外观以及材质等等各方面都有很大的差别,可除掉所有外在的东西后,它们表示的时间流逝以及看到时间流逝后人们伤感的心理却是一样的 。绝不会说你戴了几百万的表时间流逝得就快一些 ,我戴了几块钱的表时间流逝就慢几分;你的表价值百万你的伤感就深沉一些,我的表几块钱我的伤感就浅薄许多。

尽管如此,可充满挫折的人生经历却会让作者们尤其是伟大的作家们对人生的认识发生改变 ,所以司马迁在《报任安书》中说:古者富贵而名摩灭,不可胜记,唯倜傥非常之人称焉。盖西伯拘而演《周易》;仲尼厄而作《春秋》;屈原放逐 ,乃赋《离骚》;左丘失明 ,厥有《国语》;孙子膑脚,《兵法》修列;不韦迁蜀,世传《吕览》;韩非囚秦 ,《说难》《孤愤》;《诗》三百篇,大抵圣贤发愤之所为作也 。此人皆意有所郁结,不得通其道 ,故述往事 、思来者 。乃如左丘无目,孙子断足,府终不可用 ,退而论书策,以舒其愤,思垂空文以自见。司马迁强调生活的坎坷对成就伟业的重要性 ,认为无论你从什么地方开始,要是你经历过常人不可能经历的事情,从而使你洞悉了人情 ,这时 ,你要是一直能坚持,一直不放弃想在这个世上留下点什么的念头,并且集中精力去做 ,那么你就能留下一些什么。在经历了巨大的人生变革,经历了各种各样的人情后,司马迁留下了《史记》 ,而曹雪芹留下了《红楼梦》 。有时候我会想,曹雪芹家要是没有败落,《红楼梦》会不会出现 ,我的答案是否定的。那时的他或许也能写出一些文章,但最多也就是什么《风月宝鉴》之类的艳情小说或者应酬唱和的诗词歌赋。至于现在流行的《红楼梦》,那是无论任何也不可能出现的 。正是由于经历了家庭败落之后北京寒冷的冬夜 ,经历了吃不饱也没有取暖用的材料不得不靠时不时地跺脚搓手来保持手脚不被冻僵生活的曹雪芹,才会世事洞明、才会人情练达,也才能把自己完全地投入到那个已经失去的乐园 ,这才写出了精彩纷呈的大观园吧?

英译版本:

A few years ago, a joke about richness was streated. It is said that it is like a certain rich man, when you have money, you can eat beef noodles in the morning to the beef noodles. I bought two bowls in it, and I took a bowl to pour a bowl. This kind of segment after you have expressed our best to express your rich, I really feel interesting. Jia Pinghui has also had a similar plot in an article, saying that I just knocked down the four people to help the battle, and Village Villages and towns have carried out criticism of the four conferences. A farmer was united to disclose Jiang Qing's reactionary crimes, saying that she was sleeping in the bed of her sleep, filled with brown sugar; the foot feet also had a tank, filled with sugar. This Jiang Qing's eyes in the morning, eat a brown sugar, followed by a sugar. This fully demonstrates her extravagant capitalist lifestyle. Of course, there is also a better record in the ancients. I have a deep influence is a literati. After Yan Yan was found, I bought a servant of his kitchen workman, and the maid will tell him. Will make buns. He could ask a friend to let them taste the special buns of strict countries. As a result, there is no bag when it has been waiting for a long time. Send people to ask, I saw that the servant sat in the kitchen with a leisurely, except for a little bit on the board, there was no other. He is strange to ask where the bun is. The servant said that she is only responsible for preparing onions when she is in a strict country, and now the onion is ready, but it is not enough. Seeing a big burning onion, there is less than four or two, and each of the onions remain in the most inside. The literati did not believe that as a few people in the country, the man said more than 30 people, picking onion, picking with the onions, the meat, the meat, stirred down, filling the literati It was still stupid. Just do more than a buns, it takes more than 30 people, and the life of the country is really not what he can think of.

These records seem to be like a joke, but thinking about it, but said a big truth in life. We all understand this society with your own life experience, so there will be you like reading, I feel that all people in the world should read the same idea. I also have Li Shangyin according to Zhuangzi's story.: I don't know whispered Guess the poems like this. Literary art is of course no exception, no matter which form, expression is actually the author's view. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties of Turajia Novels, Cao Xueqin broke the soft ribs of this novel (opera) with the help of Jiamu: He tasted him to know the truth of the world.? Don't say that the books in his book, you are really true, take us this medium, there is no such thing, don't say that you are. It can be seen that it is dropped the chin. That is to say, if the author is, it is not the family's children. He also didn't know how the family's lives lived, but he would definitely write such people's lives in the way they think. The story written is very bizarre. It seems to tell us how to tell us how to go out, "Dream of Red Mansions" in the "Dream of Red Mansions", wrote the plot of Jiamu, Qing Dynasty: In advance, there is a family member when I arrived. Maintain, there have been a disturbing taoist riots everywhere. In the article: Jiamu's sedan is within the mountain gate, Jiamu is in the sedan because of the guardian door and thousands of miles, Xunfeng, when the land, the mainstream city is mason, and if you have a park. Jia Zhen led each child to meet. Feng Sister knew that he was waiting behind, caught up to join him, and he went down the sedan, and he was busy. It can have a twelve-year-old taoist, holding a shear tube, take the tube, cut all the wax flowers, just want to hide, don't want to hit it in Fengjie. Feng Sister raised his hand, shouted the little child and shouted: Bison days, Hu Dang run! That a small taoist is not allowed to pick up the candle shear, climb up and run away. Zheng Baodi, etc. Playing, play, play! Jia Mi listened to ask: What happened? Jia Zhen is busy coming out. Feng Jie went up and brought Jiamu, and then he said: a small trip, the latte flower, did not hide, this will drill. Jia Mi said that he was busy: Bring the child, don't put him. The small households of small households are all voyage, where this potential is seen. If you are in the sky, you will be pitiful. Said, Ja Zhen is going to bring it. Jia Zhen had to pull the child. The child still took a wax and sheared in the ground. This is the rule of the people who do this time. Of course, according to the class, it is a very surface, very floating, and is not worth advocating. But according to historical materialism, this is the rule of the social class in the historical stage at that time, you have to do anything to see if you don't see it.

Similarly, the "Dream of Red Man" wrote two times in the people, twice due to different trends from home.

The first time I went home just his brother came back. Of course, she was just a girl at that time, although it was a big girl with a monthly salary, she could only go to the right age. Announcer, so she can only go back alone.

When she returned the second time (this time she went back because her mother was seriously ill, her brother came to ask for her to see the side), her identity has been secretly determined by Wang Mrs. The people in Baoyu have, that is, Wang Xifeng, who is manageing housework, has become a famous person by a big girl. Therefore, after the Mrs. Wang, I should go back. After Wang Xifeng, the Feng Sister promised, returning to the room, and the family will tell the people. He also commanded Zhou Ruijia: Will you follow the daughter-in-law of going out, you are two people, then bring two little girls to follow people. Four of the four ages of the car. To take a big car, you have a car, you have a car, and give the gods. Zhou Rui's promised, only to go, Feng Sister also said: The attacker is a province. You tell him how to say: I call him a few of the colorful clothes, the big bag is holding a bag, the bag is also good, the furnace should be good. When I left, he called him first. After the people worn, I saw that Feng Sister's life, the Pingyue will take it out yesterday, and hit the people. I also watched the burden, I had to have a plug in the red silk in the red silk, and only two half old cotton jackets and the leather. Feng Sister also lived in the bag of Yului in a jade silk and launched a snow gown. Before the attack, Wang Xifeng also attacked people: Your mother is better; if you don't use it, only to live, send people back to me, I will send you another shop. Don't make people cover and comb guys. He also commanded Zhou Rui's way: You naturally know the rules of this, nor don't use me. Zhou Rui's promise: all know. We have been there, always calling their people to avoid. If you respond, you must be another or two rooms.

Due to the case of the status of the status before the first two times, they also responded to the diamond. And the rules of this world, if there is no experience, even if it is high.The writer is impossible to write out (so "the Dream of Red Mans" is always like this after eighty times. I saw the dog to paint the tiger, but it is still a dog in the bones.
Mr. Lu Xun once said: The poor people don't worry about the rich people, desperately wanting capital appreciation, and fear of etching. The king of kerosene lives in the top of society. Where knows where the life of the society is in order to make money, wear the cold and pick up the land of the road. Indeed, the poor is not the troubles of the rich, and people who have a rich home can certainly know the days of the poor. I have been killed by the literati jokes, once listened to the minister, saying that some people have starved to death. He asked strangely: Why didn't they eat meat? This story has always been his stupid symbol, because all people who have listened this story and have a real hunger experience. Those who have to eat when I feel that the people who have worked hard after listening to this story? They must not feel Jin Hui Emperor. Because they don't know if they are hungry, they are not because they don't want to eat, but because there is no way to get something to eat.

From this perspective, all understandings are based on experience. A lot of writers have not experienced the story, of course, there is a fictional (to build someone else's life according to your own ideas). As we are now known as the "West Chamber" of one of the four major famous dramas, if it is only from the storyline, of course, it is also a criticized object. Even if he died, even if he died, as long as he did not be held by the autumn, copying the family, it would be to escort the priest, but only the old woman Zheng, the lady, the maid, the woman, Xiao Xiao, this It is the idea of ​​typical rural small landlords. It is necessary to say that it is more powerful than Jiafu, that is, such a few people, that is, it is impossible. Therefore, Wang Duyi's story is not in line with the actual situation, and it is absolutely impossible to have such people in reality. But this can't say that Wang Duyi does not know this rule, but it should be that he knows that he is writing a drama. The audience of this drama is civilians, and they think that the story is not in their daily life. Therefore, a prostitute who has passed the world can cause the interest of the flat head to come, let alone a story of a big joyful story with a white scripture. But Cao Xueqin's actions through Jia Baoyu show that he likes this scorpion.He likes this scorpion, it will not be this story, but this story expresss the human mood and scenery. Look at the description in the book, Jia Baoyu has read the tea meal after seeing the scorpion drama, Lin Daiyu is also the first time I entered the realm of forgetting my. In this way, the words of Lin Daiyu said that it is a policeman, Yu Xiang. In other words, although its storyline lacks authenticity, it describes the objective scenery at the time, and the mood of the characters in that state is very real, and this should also be the foundation of literary art. For a few more, people wearing a watch worth millions, and some may have a few dollars, both from the appearance and material, etc. have a big difference, which can remove all the things. After that, they expressed the same time, and the psychology of people's sadness after the time lapse. I will never say that you wear a few million table time, I have a few dollars, I have done a few dollars, and you have a bit more slower; your table value, you have a deep sad, my table A few dollars have a lot of sadness.
Despite this, it will make the authors, especially great writers, have changed their understanding of life, so Sima Qian said in "reporting Octa": The ancients are rich and famous It is not a victory, and the only one is very famous. Cover Xibo and play "Zhou Yi"; Zhong Nie is "Spring and Autumn"; Qu Yuan's extension, is "Li Sao"; Zuoqiu is blind, there is "Mandarin"; grandson, "Art of War";蜀, the world is passing "Lu Look"; Han Nai is prison, "said difficult" "I am angry"; "Poetry" three hundred, the big arrogant is true. This person is all stunned, and it is not necessary to pass on his, the relaxation, and thinking. It is like Zuoqiu's innocent, grandson is faulty, the government is unusable, retreats the book strategy, with Shu Qi, thinking of empty text. Sima Qian emphasizes the importance of life, thinking that no matter where you start, if you have experienced something you can't experience, so that you can insist on human feelings, then, if you have always insisted, you have never give up I want to stay in this world, and concentrate on doing, then you can leave some. After experiencing the change of huge life, after various people, Sima Qian left "Historical Record", and Cao Xueqin left "Dream of Red Man". Sometimes I will think that if Cao Xueqi is not defeated, "Red Mansions" will not appear, my answer is negative.. At that time, he may also write some articles, but most of the "Feng Moon Baojian" or the poems whose singing should be sang. As for the popular "Dream Dream", it is impossible to appear anyway. It is because of the winter night after the family is defeated, I have experienced that I don't have any material that I don't have to hear. I will hold my hands from time to time. Cao Xueqin who does not be frozen. Only people will take care of it, and I can completely put myself into the paradise that has lost, this has written a wonderful big garden?

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