问了好多德国朋友，都不知道黑格尔的墓在哪里。后来在旅馆接到一位长期在这儿工作的中国学人的电话 ，他是我的读者，知道我的兴趣所在，没说几句就问我想不想去祭拜一下黑格尔墓地 ，我一听正中下怀 。这位中国学人叫于兴华，我没见过，于是约好在勃兰登堡门附近的国会大厦门口见面 ，他与太太开车来接我。
费里德利希大街往北走，一条泥地小巷通向一个极不起眼的公墓，杂乱、拥挤 、肮脏 ，很难相信这是欧洲陵园，如果不是他们夫妻带领，我即使拿着地址也不敢进来。
我跟着他们在密密层层的墓廊间行走 ，等着出现一个比较空阔的墓地，谁知正是在最密集的地方停了下来 。于兴华说这就是，我将信将疑地看了他一眼，然后再看墓碑 ，将黑格尔的全名按字母排列拼了两遍，没错，再细看生卒年份也对 ，那么，十八号墓穴安葬的果真是黑格尔和他的夫人。斜眼一看，隔壁十九号 ，则是费希特和夫人。从公墓路边张贴的一张纸上知道，茨威格也在里边，找了三圈没找到 。
这些大师在人类文化领域都顶天立地 ，没想到在这里却摩肩接踵，拥塞于如此狭窄的空间。我不知道处处认真的德国人，为什么这件事做得这么潦草。大概有一个特殊的历史原因 ，因为我在别的地方也看到过一些不太重要的文化人墓地，德国人都做得很讲究 。相信这里不久就会有一次重大修缮。
我们三人在墓地间转悠了那么久，只在长长的杂草间见到一个活人，是一个埋头读书的男青年。问他茨威格的墓 ，他立即礼貌地站起来摇头，然后向东边一指：“我光知道布莱希特在那里 。”
布莱希特的墓稍大，却地处边角。忽然想起 ，那个读书的男青年身边的杂草间，还安置着一辆小小的婴儿车，里边有一个婴儿在熟睡。这是这位男青年的孩子吗他为什么愿意把小生命停息在这么冷僻而阴森的所在这不便问 ，只知道今天下午我们在这里见到的活人不是一个，而是两个。
墓园、荒草、婴儿 、书籍，再夹杂几声鸟鸣；看书看到一半左右环顾 ，一个个惊天动地的名字从书本滑向石碑，这儿是许多文化灵魂的共同终点 。我重新远远地打量了一下那个男青年，心中产生了一点莫名的感念。是他 ，消解了这个墓园的荒凉和寂寞。
其实，世间智者的归宿处，正是后人静坐、静读的好地方。紧靠着伟大的灵魂消闲半日 ，即便默默无语，也会使人们的生死观变得更加健康。可惜我们中国的殡葬文化缺少这种境界，常常使长眠者过于孤苦 ，或过于热闹 。
黑格尔的美学，我曾研习和讲授多年，但今天站在他的墓前 ，想得最多的倒是他的国家理念。这是因为，我现在正旅行在荣辱交错 、分分合合的德国，有太多的信号天天从正面和反面诱发着这个话题。
欧洲长期以来实行教权合一 ，很多人只知有教，不知有国 。大约从十七世纪的“三十年战争 ”开始，互相之间打得热火朝天 ，打得教皇权威大损，打得人们重新要以“民族国家”的概念来谋求领土和主权。
国家因战争而显得重要，战争由国家来证明理由。“民族国家”的内涵，最早是由炮火硝烟来填充的 。经过拿破仑战争 ，这一切都被描绘得更加浓烈，但当时在黑格尔的视野中，法国、英国、俄国都已经成为统一的主权国家 ，而他特别寄情的日耳曼民族居然还没有。这使他产生了一种焦灼，开始呼唤国家，并对国家注入一系列终极性的理念。他认为国家是民族精神的现实化 ，因此应该享有最终决定的意志。他甚至肯定普鲁士是体现“绝对精神 ”的最好国家 。
我在黑格尔墓前想到他的国家理念，也由于看到与他相邻的是费希特。对民族感情的直露表现，费希特更强过黑格尔。拿破仑入侵普鲁士 ，对他刺激极大，并由此确认德意志人的天职就是建立一个正义的强权国家 。这位哲学家已经按捺不住自己的社会责任，经常走出书斋和课堂发表慷慨激昂的演讲。费希特最典型的演讲词是：朋友 ，你胸中还存在着德意志的心脏吗那就让它跳动起来吧你身上还流动着德意志的热血吗那就让它奔腾起来吧
记得早年在一本书上读到，有一次费希特患病的夫人出现了危险的症状，他本该留下侍候，但原先约定的一次重要演讲来不及推掉了 ，只得忍痛前往。没想到等他心急火燎地回来，夫人的病情居然有所好转，他激动地流着眼泪与夫人拥抱亲吻 。人们说 ，正是这种拥抱亲吻使他传染上了夫人的病，而且因此去世。现在我看着他们夫妻俩的合葬墓想，世间多数广场演讲者的家里 ，总有一位妻子等着，等得非常殷切，绝不会不等他回来就独自离去；一次次等待 ，直等到长眠在一处。
他们无法预料的是，长眠在他们隔壁的是黑格尔夫妇，黑格尔生前把费希特的激情演讲凝炼成了国家学说 。这两家的小小墓区所迸发过的情感和理念 ，曾对德国产生过巨大的负面作用。尤其是费希特对于国家扩充欲望的肯定，黑格尔关于战争是伟大纯洁剂的说法，增添了普鲁士精神中的有害成分。但总的说来，墓主对以后的灾难没有太大的责任 ，因为他们不能想象由此而生发的极端性行动 。
费希特的老师是康德，但康德与他们有很大的不同。康德终身静居乡里，思维却无比开阔。他相信人类理性 ，断定人类一定会克服反社会倾向而实现社会性，克服对抗而走向和谐，各个国家也会规范自己的行为 ，逐步建立良好的国际联盟，最终建立世界意义的“普遍立法的公民社会”。正是这种构想，成了后来欧洲统一运动的理论根据 。
其实“民族国家”观念和“欧洲统一 ”观念，看似抵牾，却组成了近代欧洲政治哲学的悖论结构 ，两者互为基础，互为前提，相反相成，涡旋滚动。目前看来 ，原先东欧一些国家，往往更侧重于民族国家观念，而欧洲的其它部分 ，则更侧重于康德的理念 。
我本人也更喜欢康德，喜欢他跨疆越界的大善，喜欢他隐藏在严密思维背后的远见。民族主权有局部的合理性 ，但欧洲的血火历程早已证明，对此张扬过度必是人类的祸殃，而人类共同的文明原则 ，一定是最终的方向。#p#分页标题#e#
我很注意康德提出的“反社会倾向”这个概念。这个概念接近于我们现在所说的“反人类” ，而康德所说的社会就是人类有秩序的和谐组合。在他心目中，用人类的整体理性来克服反社会状态，远比费希特强调的民族精神和黑格尔强调的国家学说重要 。事实早已证明，而且还将不断证明 ，很多邪恶行为往往躲在“民族 ”和“国家”的旗幡后面，我们应该撩开这些旗幡，把那些反人类 、反社会、反生命、反秩序 、反理智的庞大暗流暴露在光天化日之下。在这件事上 ，不应有民族和国家的界限。
I asked a lot of German friends, I don't know where Hegel's tomb. Later, I received a telephone number of Chinese scholars who worked here for a long time. He is my reader, knowing my interest, I don't want to worship the Hegel cemetery, I Listening to justice. This Chinese scholar is called Xinghua, I have never seen, so I met on the door of the Capron Building near Brandenburg, and he was driving with Mrs.
Felidli Street is going north, a mud alley leads to an extremely eye-catching cemetery, messy, crowded, dirty, it is difficult to believe this is the European cemetery, if not their husband and wife lead I don't dare to come in even if I take the address.
I followed them walking on the tomb gallery of the dense layer, waiting for a relatively spacious cemetery, who knows that it is stopped in the most intensive place. Yu Xinghua said that this is, I will read him in a doubt, and then watch the tombstone, put the full name of Hegel in the letter, it is right, yes, then look at the year of life, then ten The fruit of the tomb of the eighth is really Hegel and his lady. Looking at the eye, the next door is Nine, which is Fishert and the lady. I know from a paper on the side of the cemetery road, Zweig is also inside, I have found three laps.
These masters are topically in the field of human culture, but they did not expect to be shoulders here, congestion in such narrow space. I don't know why it is a serious German, why do this thing is so scribbled. There is a special historical reason, because I have seen some less important cultural people in other places, and the Germans have done very much. I believe there will be a major repair soon.
The three people turned over in the cemetery, only to see a living in the long weeds, a male woman who burys his head. Asked his Tomewe's tomb, he immediately stood up and shook his head, then nuts to the east: "I know Bleste."
Blacktet's tomb slightly, but The corner is located. Suddenly remembered, the weed between the men's young people, also placed a small baby stroller, and there was a baby asleep. Is this a young child? He is willing to stop the little life in such a dead and hateful, only know that we are here today.The living person who saw it is not one, but two.
Cemetery, Wills, Baby, Books, Take a few birds; reading a book is left and right, and the name of the earth is sliding from the book to the stone tablet, which is the common end of many cultural souls. I realized the young man in my heart, and I have a little inexplicable sense. It is him, digestion, the desolate and loneliness of this cemetery.
If there is no such sleep in the cemetery, desolate, loneliness will be the world outside.
In fact, the world's wise is a good place to sit still, quiet reading. Tightly by the great soul is long, even if it is speechless, people's life and death will become healthier. Unfortunately, our China's funeral culture lacks this kind of realm, often makes the long sleepers too lonely, or too lively.
Hegel's aesthetics, I have been studying and lecture for many years, but I stand in front of his tomb today, I think the most is his national concept. This is because I am now traveling in the glory of the glory, the split Germany, and there are too many signals to induce this topic from front and back every day.
Europe has long practiced teaching, many people only know that they are teaching, do not know. From the beginning of the "30 Years War" of the seventeenth century, he played a hot fire between the heavens, playing the authority of the Pope, and playing people to seek territorial and sovereignty with the concept of "national state".
The country is important for war, and the war is proved from the country. The connotation of "national state" was first filled with gunfire. After Napoleon War, all of this is more intense, but at the time in Hegel's field of view, France, the United Kingdom, Russia has become a unified sovereign state, and his specially sent a Germanic nation has not yet. This made him an anxiety, starting to call the country and inject a series of ultimate concepts into the country. He believes that the country is the realization of national spirit, so we should have the will of the final decision. He even affirmed that Pusher is the best country that reflects "absolute spirit".
I thought of his national philosophy in front of Hegel tomb, but also because of the approach of him. Direct expression of national emotions, Fishert is stronger than Hegel. Napoleon invaded Prussia, rightHe stimulated great, and thus confirmed that the ambition of Deengos was to build a strong power of justice. The philosopher has already posed its own social responsibility, and he often comes out of the book and the classroom to express an impassioned speech. Fishert's most typical speech is: friends, your chest still exists in the heart of German heart? Let it be jumped, you also flow on the blood of Germany, let it go!
I remember to read in a book in the early years. A lady who had a sick of Fishert has a dangerous symptom. He should leave a waiting, but the original agreement is not as low as being pushed, but he has to endure. I didn't expect him to come back. The last thing of the lady has changed, and he excitedly flowed his tears and his wife hugged kiss. People say that this hug kisses the illness that he has contracted his wife, and therefore died. Now I looked at the burial tomb of their husband and wife, there is always a wife at home, there is always a wife waiting, I have been very eager, I will never wait for him to come back; once again waiting, straight, etc. Sleep in one place.
They can't expect that long sleep in the next wall is Hegel couple, Hegel condensed the passionate speech of Fishert into the country. The emotions and philosophy of the two small tomb areas have had a huge negative effect on Germany. In particular, Fishert's affirmation of the national expansion desire, Hegel's statement on the war is a great purity, adding harmful ingredients in the spirit of Prussia. But in general, the tomb is not much responsibility for future disasters, because they can't imagine the extreme actions of happiness.
Fishert's teacher is Kant, but Kant is very different from them. Kant's life is quiet, thinking is extremely open. He believes that human rationality, determining that human beings will overcome anti-social tendency and achieve sociality, overcome confrontation, and harmony, all countries will also regulate their own behavior, and gradually establish a good international alliance, and finally establish a "universal legislation" society". It is this idea that it has become the theoretical basis for later European unified sports.
Kant's World Blueprint has no national boundaries, and his interests have come up early in Germany.
In fact, "national" concept and "European unity" concept, seemingly arrogant, but forms modern timesThe paradox structure of European political philosophy, the two is based on each other, premise, opposite, vortex rolling. At present, some countries in Eastern Europe are often more focused on the concept of nation, while other parts of Europe, more focused on Kant's philosophy.
I also prefer Kant, like his cross-west, like he hides the vision behind strict thinking. The national sovereignty has a local rationality, but Europe's blood circulation has already proved that it is necessary to be a human scourge, and the principle of human common civilization must be the final direction. # p 分 标题 # e #
European cultural conscience, including ethnic ad hobs and rosewat, and also hold this position.
I very much pay attention to the concept of "anti-social tendency" proposed by Kant. This concept is close to what we now say "anti-human", and the society said by Kant is a harmonious combination of human order. In his mind, the overall rationality of human beings overcome the anti-social state, the national spirit and Hegel emphasized the national spirit of Hegel stressed. The fact has already proved, and it will continue to prove that many evil behaviors often hide behind the "national" and "national" flags, we should open these flags, put those anti-human, anti-social, anti-life, anti-order, The huge dark stream of the restoration is exposed to the light day. In this matter, there should be no boundaries of national and national countries.
Unfortunately, because Kant's learning is too peaceful, never caused social excitement.
This time I can't go to Kant's hometown, I can only lift my head in Hegel's cemetery. But I have already inquired the route that I have clearly went, and I can find it directly even if no one is driving.
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