胡适经典美文之科学的人生观天晴

作者:鲁凯仞人气:1866更新:2021-07-14 06:01:19

      今天讲的题目,就是“科学的人生观” ,研究人是什么东西?在字宙中占据什么地位?人生究竟有何意味?因为少年人近来觉得很烦闷,自杀、颓废的都有,我比较至少多吃了几斤盐 ,几担米,所以来计划计划,研究自身人的问题 ,至于人生观,各人不同,都随环境而改变 ,不可以一个人的人生观去统理一切;因为公有公理,婆有婆理;我们至少要以科学的立场,去研究它 ,解决它。“科学的人生观 ”有两个意思:第一拿科学做人生观的基础;第二拿科学的态度、精神 、方法 ,做我们生活的态度,生活的方法。

      现在先讲第一点,就是人生是什么?人生是啥物事?拿科学的研究结果来讲 ,我在民国十二年发表的十条,这十条就是武昌有一个主教,称为新的十诫 ,说我是中华基督教的危险物的 。十条内容如下:

一、要知道空间的大 拿天文、物理考察,得着宇宙之大;从前孙行者翻筋斗,一翻翻到南天门, 一翻翻到下界 ,天的观念,何等的小?现在从地球到银河中间的最近的一个星,中间距离 ,照孙行者一秒钟翻十万八千里的速率计算,恐怕翻一万万年也翻不到,宇宙是何等的大?地球是宇宙间的沦海之一粟 ,九牛之一毛;我们人类 ,更是小,真是不成东西的东西!以前看得人的地位太重了,以为是万物之灵 ,同大地并行,凡是政治不良,就有彗星 、地震的征象 ,这是错的。从前王充很能见得到,说:“一个虱子不能改变那裤子里的空气,和那人类不能改变皇天一样。”所以我们眼光要大 。
 
二、时间是无穷的长 从地质学、生物学的研究 ,晓得时间是无穷的长,以前开口五千年,闭口五千年 ,以为目空一切;不料世界太阳系的存在,有几万万年的历史,地球也有几万万年 ,生物至少有几千万年 ,人类也有二三百万年,所以五千年占很小的地位。明白了时间之长,就可以看见各种进步的演变 ,不是上帝一刻可以造成的。

三 、宇宙间自然的行动 根据了一切科学,知道宇宙、万物都有一定不变的自然行动 。“自然自己,也是如此” ,就是自己自然如此,各物自己如此的行动,并没有一种背后的指示 ,或是一个主宰去规范他们。明白了这点,对于月蚀是月亮被天狗所吞的种种迷信,可以打破了。
 
四、物竞天择的原理 从生物学的智识 ,可以看到物竞天择的原理,鲫鱼下卵有几百万个,但是变鱼的只有几个;否则就要变成“鱼世界 ”了!大的吃小的 ,小的又吃更小的 ,人类都是如此 。从此晓得人生不受安排,是自己如此的行动;否则要安排起来,为什么不安排一个完善的世界呢?
 
五 、人是什么东西 从社会学、生理学、心理学方面去看 ,人是什么东西?吴稚晖先生说:“人是两手一个大脑的动物,与其他的不同在程度上的区别罢了。”人类的手,与鸡 、鸭的掌差不多 ,实是他们的弟兄辈。

六 、人类是演进的 根据了人种学来看,人类是演进的;因为要应付环境,所以要慢慢的变;不变不能生存 ,要灭亡了 。所以从下等的动物,慢慢演进到高等的动物,现在还是演进 。

七、心理受因果律的支配 根据了心理学、生物学来讲 ,心理现状是有因果律的。思想 、做梦,都受因果律的支配,是心理、生理的现象 ,和头痛一般;所以人的心理说是超过一切 ,是不对的。
 
八、道德 、礼教的变迁 照生理学、社会学来讲,人类道德、礼教也变迁的 。以前以为脚小是美观,但是现在脚小要装大了。所以道德 、礼教的观念 ,正在改进。以二十年、二百年或二千年以前的标准,来判断二十年、二百年 、二千年后的状况,是格格不相入的 。

九、各物都有反应 照物理、化学来讲 ,物质是活的,原子分为电子,是动的 ,石头倘然加了化学品,就有反应,像人打了一记 ,就有反动一样。不同的,只在程度不同罢了。
 
十 、人的不朽 根据一切科学智识,人是要死的 ,物质上的腐败 ,和猫死狗死一般 。但是个人不朽的工作,是功德:在立德,立功 ,立言。善恶都是不朽。一块痰中,有微生物,这菌能散布到空间 ,使空气都恶化了;人的言语,也是一样 。凡是功业 、思想,都能传之无穷;匹夫匹妇 ,都有其不朽的存在。
 
我们要看破人世间,时间之伟大,历史的无穷 ,人是最小的动物,处处都在演进,要去掉那小我的主张 ,但是那小小的人类 ,居然现在对于制度、政治各种都有进步。

以前都是拿科学去答复一切,现在要用什么方法去解决人生,就是哪样生活?各人有各人的方法 ,但是,至少要有那科学的方法、精神 、态度去做 。分四点来讲:
 
一、怀疑 第一点是怀疑,三个弗相信的态度 ,人生问题就很多 。有了怀疑的态度,就不会上当。以前我们幼时的知识,都从阿金、阿狗 、阿毛等黄包车夫、娘姨处学来;但是现在自己要反省 ,问问以前的智识是否靠得往?有此态度,对于什么马克斯,牛克思主义都不致盲从了。

二、事实 我们要实事求是:现在像贴贴标语 ,什么打倒田中义一等,都仅务虚名,像豆腐店里生意不好 ,看看“对我生财”泄闷一样 。又像是以前的画符 ,一画符病就好的思想。贴了打倒帝国主义,帝国主义就真个打倒了么?这不对,我们应做切实的工作 ,奋力的做去。
 
三 、证据 怀疑以后,相信总要相信,但是相信的条件 ,就是拿凭据来,有了这一句,论理学诸书 ,都可以不读,赫胥黎的儿子死了以后,宗教家去劝他信教 ,但是他很坚决的说,“拿有上帝的证据来! ”有了这种态度,就不会上当 。

四、真理 朝夕的去求真理 ,不一定要成功 ,因为真理无穷,宇宙无穷;我们去寻求,是尽一点责任 ,希望在总分上,加上万万分之一。胜固是可喜,败也不足忧。明知赛跑只有一个人第一,我们还要跑去 ,不是为我为私,是为大家 。发明不是为发财,是为人类。英国有一个医生 ,发明了一种治肺的药。但是因为自秘,就被医学会开除了 。

      所以科学家是为求真理。庄子虽有“吾生也有涯,而知也无涯,以有涯逐无涯,殆已”的话头,但是我们还要向上做去 ,得一分就是一分,一寸就是一寸,可以有亚基米特氏发现浮力时叫Eureka的快活 ,有了这种精神 ,做人就不会失望。所以人生的意味,全靠你自己的工作;你要它圆就圆,方就方 ,是有意味;因为真理无穷,趣味无穷,进步快活也无穷尽 。

英译版本:

Today's topic is "scientific life concept", what is the study? What position is it occupied in the wordland? What is life? Because the young people have recently felt very bored, suicide, decadent, I have a few pounds of salt, a few meals, so I plan to plan, study my own people, as for outlook on life, all people have different people The environment changes, can not be a person's life to see everything; because public axicts, our mother has a mother; we must study it at least by scientific position, and solve it. There are two meaning of "scientific life concept": the first science to do the foundation of life; the second science attitude, spirit, method, and methods of our lives, life.

Now, first, what is life? What is life? In the case of the study of science, I published ten years in the Republic of China. These ten are Wuchang has a bishop, called a new ten commander, saying that I am a dangerous thing for Chinese Christianity. Ten contents are as follows:

I have to know the space of the space, physical examination, have a big universe; from the front Sun, the sun flipped, he turned over to the South Tianmen, one flipped to the lower bound, day Concept, what small? Now from the nearest star of the earth to the middle of the Milky Way, the rate of the Sun Bank is more than 100,000 thousand miles in a second, I am afraid that the universe can't be turned over. How is the universe? The earth is one of the scent of the villain, one of the nine cows; our human beings, it is a small, it is not something! It used to be too heavy before, thinking is the spirit of all things, parallel with the earth, all political poor, there is a comet, an earthquake sign, this is wrong. Over the time, Wang Chong was very visible, saying: "A scorpion can't change the air in the trousers, and the human beings can't change the emperor." So our eyes are big.

Second, time is endless long-term geological, biological research, knowing time is endless, before opening for five thousand years, closed for five thousand years, thinking that it is everything in the eyes; Ten thousand years of history, the earth is also tens of millions of years, and the organism is at least tens of millions, and human beings are also two or three million years, so the five thousand years have a small position. Understand the length of time, you can see the evolution of various progress, not what God can cause.
Third, the natural action between the universeAccording to everything science, know the universe, all things have a certain natural action. "Natural yourself, this is true", it is the case, you don't have a kind of instruction behind you, or a domayer to regulate them. Understand this, to the moon is a violent superstition that the moon is swallowed by Tianzhu, it can be broken.

Four, the principle of material competition From biology's intelligence, you can see the principle of the competition, there are millions of squid, but only a few fish, otherwise To become a "fish world"! Large eating, small and smaller, human beings are. Since then, I know that life is not arranged, it is such a action; otherwise, it is necessary to arrange, why not arrange a perfect world?
Five, what is human, from sociology, physiology, psychology, what is human? Mr. Wu Zishui said: "People are animals of two brains, with other different degrees of extent." Human hand, the palm of the chicken, the duck is almost, is their brothers.
Sixth, human beings are evolved in terms of human breach, human beings are evolved; because they have to cope with the environment, they have to change slowly; they will not be able to survive. Therefore, from the following animals, slowly evolve into higher animals, or now.

Seven, the support of psychological activities is based on psychology, biology, and the status quo is caused by fruit law. Thoughts, dream, are subject to fruit law, is a psychological, physiological phenomenon, and headache is general; so people's psychology says more than everything, is wrong.
Eight, morality, ethics, learning physiology, sociology, human morality, and rituals also change. I used to think that the feet is beautiful, but now the feet are small. So moral, ethics concept is improving. In 20 years, two hundred years or 2,000, it is necessary to judge the situation of 20 years, two hundred years and twenty years, and it is incorporated.

Nine, all things have reactions, chemistry, chemistry, the material is live, the atom is divided into electronics, it is moving, the stone is in addition to chemicals, there is a reaction, like someone Remember, there is a reaction. Different, only extent.
Ten, people's immortality According to all scientific intelligence, people have to die, Material corruption, and cat death dog. But personal immortal work is merit: in Lid, Live, and speak. Good and evil are immortal. Among a sputum, there is microorganisms, this bacteria can spread to space, making the air deteriorate; people's speech is the same. Anyone who is relocated, and it can pass the endless; the husband, there is an immortal existence.

We have to see the world, the greatness of time, the end of history, people are the smallest animals, are evil everywhere, to remove the little my claim, but that little human, actually now for the system And political all kinds of progress.

I used to get scientific to answer everything, what method is now used to solve life, what life is it? Everyone has a manner, but at least there must be the scientific method, spirit, attitude. In four o'clock:

I doubt the first thing is doubt, three Ephes is believed, and there are a lot of life problems. With a suspicion, it will not be. In the past, we were all kinds of knowledge from Akin, Pig, and Ai Mao, and Mei Xiangcheng; But now I have to reflect, ask if the previous intelligence is reached? Have this attitude, what Max, Niuxism is not blindly.

Second, the facts we have to seek truth from facts: now like a sticker slogan, what is wrong, one is just a virtual name, like the business in the tofu store, look at "Licen to me" stissible. It is like a previous paint, a good idea. Passed down the imperialism, the imperialism really knocked down? This is wrong, we should do practical work and do it.
Third, after doubting, I believe that I always believe, but believe that the conditions are to take the credentials, with this sentence, the agency, the book, I can not read, Huxley's son is dead. The religious home to persuade him to believe, but he is very firm to say, "With the evidence of God!" With this attitude, it will not be active.

Four Shenggu is happy, and it is not enough to defeat. Only one person is only one person in the king, we still have to go, not for me for all, it is for everyone. The invention is not for making a fortune, is for humans. British has a doctorBorn, invented a drug for taking a lungs. However, because of self-motion, it was opened by the Medical Association.

So scientists are for truth. Although Zhuangzi has "my life is also the same, I know that I have no end, I have a good end, but I have already done it, but we have to go up, you have to be a point, one inch is one inch, can have Yichi Mi Turntian discovered that the fierceness of Eureka was the mercy of Eureka, with this spirit, and people won't be disappointed. So life's means, relying on your own work; you want it to circle, it is, it is meaningful; because the truth is endless, the fun is endless, and the progress is faster.

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